El Camino College

Anthropology Department

Anthropology 1: Introduction to Physical Anthropology

Anthropology 1

Dr. D. Blair Gibson

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Syllabus
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Class Information:

 


 

Section 2035; 2051

 

Fall 2018    Anthropology 1:  Introduction to Physical Anthropology 

Dr. Blair Gibson                                                                Phone No: (310) 532-3670 x 3580                            

Office: ArtB 330 D                                                                email: dbgibson@elcamino.edu  

Office hrs: Mon; Wed: 1:00-2:00 PM;   T Th. 8:15-9:15 AM

Faculty web page: www.elcamino.edu/faculty/dbgibson/

 

Course Description: This course is a survey of the state of knowledge and current issues in the field of biological anthropology. The course will cover natural selection, genetics and physiology, primate cladistics, anatomy, primate behavior, and the fossil record for the evolution of the primate order.

 

Important Note: This is a hybrid course. With the exception of the Primate Anatomy exam, the syllabus quiz and all objective exams will be taken online via Canvas.

 

Texts:  Required: The Human Species, 9th ed., John Relethford (earlier editions are ok)              

 Recommended: A Photographic Atlas for Physical Anthropology, Paul F. Whitehead et al.

                                    :The Human Evolution Coloring Book, 2nd ed., Adrienne Zihlman

    

   Course resources: Syllabi, handouts, and Powerpoint lectures can be viewed and downloaded on the class web page, accessed through my faculty index page. Copies of the textbooks are on reserve in the library in the reserve reading area.

 

Course Objectives / Student Outcomes

 

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of the scientific method and its significance to science.

 

2. Describe and evaluate the major ideas that preceded and led to the development of evolutionary theory and analyze modern theories of Darwinian evolution through natural selection.

3. Identify and describe the processes by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next.

4. Identify and discuss the various components of the DNA molecule and the process of protein synthesis.

5. Explain and assess the mechanisms of evolutionary change and explain how each one contributes to the evolutionary process.

6. Contrast point and chromosomal mutations and discuss the significance of point mutations to evolution.

7. List the major anatomical characteristics of primates associated with movement and the senses, and explain how they evolved as adaptations to an arboreal environment.

8. Contrast the major forms of primate social structure and describe their relationship to the primate species’ ecology.

9. Explain the differences between relative and chronometric dating and provide an example of chronometric dating using a radiometric technique.

10. Evaluate the benefits of bipedalism in reference to the particular environment in which most hominid evolution occurred.

11. Compare and contrast the skull characteristics of Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus (or Paranthropus) boisei, and Homo habilis in relation to the particular diet of each.

12. Contrast the anatomical characteristics of Homo habilis and Homo erectus, and analyze those contrasts in reference to their respective environments and subsistence strategies.

13. Analyze the characteristics of Homo neanderthalensis in reference to the environment in which this hominid lived.

14. Evaluate the models that account for the origin of Homo sapiens, outlining the major criteria and evidence supporting each.

15. Outline the cultural stages in the evolution of the genus Homo, making reference to the particular Homo species, tool industry, and environmental context associated with each stage.

16. Explain the difference between physiological adjustments and adaptations and explain skin color and body build as adaptations to particular environments.

 

Anthropology 1 Student Learning Outcome 

#1 Natural Selection: In a written assignment, students will explain how natural selection is related to environmental factors by using an example that identifies key processes of natural selection and illustrates how selective pressures can change. #2 Primate Arboreal Adaptations. In an in-class assignment or objective exam question, students will demonstrate an understanding of primate adaptation by describing the major anatomical characteristics of primates associated with movement and the senses, and indentifying how they evolved as adaptations to arboreal environments. #3 Human Evolution In a written assignment or objective exam question(s), students will demonstrate an understanding of human evolution by comparing and contrasting the anatomical and behavioral features of modern Homo sapiens with various extinct species of the Genus Homo (e.g. Neandertals, H.erectus, H. habilis).

 

****************************************************************

 

ADA Statement: El Camino College is committed to providing educational accommodations for students with disabilities upon the timely request by the student to the instructor. A student with a disability, who would like to request an academic accommodation, is responsible for identifying herself/himself to the instructor and to the SpecialResourcesCenter. To make arrangements for academic accommodations, contact the Special Resources Center.

Course requirements

 

A quiz on the syllabus, 4 tests, a worksheet on natural selection, a genetics problem set, and a take-home primate anatomy test.

 

All exams will be multiple choice and are non-cumulative, and will include questions on any films that are shown.

 

Grading      Quiz                                                        5%

                     Worksheet and problem set                   15%

                     Exams                                                   80%

 

Points breakdown: Syllabus quiz 15 pts., natural selection worksheet 25 pts., Hardy-Weinberg worksheet 25 pts., primate anatomy exam 60 pts., in-class objective exams 50 pts. ea.

 

The grading scale for the objective exams and syllabus quiz hinges on the highest grade that was achieved on the exam. It then descends in 10% increments from that score.

 

Extra Credit: students are encouraged to go to relevant public lectures, visit zoos and museums, and present oral presentations of newsworthy items before the class for extra credit up to a cap of 40 points. No extra credit will be accepted after the 14th week. The privilege of doing extra credit is contingent upon maintaining an acceptable attendance record.  See the extra credit guidelines for details.

 

*** If you have any special problems or pressures, please discuss them with me as soon as you can, not at the end of the term!*** 

Student responsibilities: Full participation is expected from the participants in this course. This responsibility entails attending class meetings, turning in work punctually, and reading the assigned materials. There are, sadly, consequences for not living up to these responsibilities:

 

  Email submissions: I will review and offer comments on a student’s work via email, but I will never accept any work submitted for credit via email, including extra credit submissions. 

  Late assignmentsWith the exception of the primate anatomy exam I do accept late work, but the grade on an assignment is dropped by the point equivalent of one grade level (10%) for every class meeting it is late before it is graded. Unexcused absences or mechanical difficulties with a computer or printer are not valid excuses. I will not accept late assignments during the last week of class. Assignments handed in late are graded at my convenience.

  “Lost” assignments - My operative assumption: I don't lose assignments. If it is claimed that I have lost a student’s work the following procedure is followed: 1) I will request that the student immediately produce a back-up photocopy of the assignment in question. The backup must be furnished to me within 24 hours of the request. 2) A search is made of my office, car, and home for the student’s original work. If the original is not found, 3) I retain the backup until the very end of the semester. At the end of the semester I look over the student’s record of attendance and assignment completion. If the student has missed 3 classes or fewer, and has turned in all other work punctually then I grade the backup and enter the points without deduction. If the student’s class attendance and work submission record is irregular, or the so-called back-up looks fishy then I conclude that I have been lied to and not only throw the backup into the trash can, but also erase all of the student’s extra credit points from my records. I will not assume responsibility for any work or other submissions purportedly shoved under my door or placed in my box.

 

  Attendance - I take attendance at the beginning of the period. I don't adjust attendance retroactively, so if a student misses roll it is the student's responsibility to seek a correction on the day of the tardy. A student who is absent on a given day is still responsible for what transpired in class on that day. An absence/tardy total exceeding two weeks worth of classes will result in a student being barred from accumulating further extra credit. The student is to come to the instructor's office during the office hour to obtain any handout or unclaimed work a student has missed due to an absence. Attendance will figure into my grading at the end of term if the grade is borderline (within 3% of a grade boundary). In line with college guidelines, I consider total absences/tardies exceeding one week to be excessive. 

 

  Make-ups: A make-up will be administered only for extraordinary reasons that are documentable. No make-ups are allowed on the syllabus quiz, primate anatomy exam, or the final exam. The primate anatomy exam must be turned in by the due date for credit.  

 

  Unrighteous behavior: I don't fool around with those who cheat. Cheating includes copying off another's test, copying another student's assignment, or lifting material from a source, including the texts and websites without proper acknowledgement (plagiarism). Academic dishonesty connected to extra credit will result in disbarment from the privilege of earning extra credit, and the loss of all extra credit points. 

The following behaviors are disruptive and will result in negative consequences if they occur 1) leave the classroom while lecture is in progress, and for added effect, cross directly in front of me to make sure I lose my train of thought. Doing this will result in an unexcused absence for the day. It is never OK to leave a lecture early! 2) text or play games on your cell phone, 3) talk to your neighbor, 4) use your laptop computer – laptop or tablet use is strictly forbidden, 6)  sleep while lecture is in progress. 7) bring an active cell phone to class, and if you really want to see an enraged instructor, take a cell phone call while class is in progress. If you take a cell phone with you during a bathroom visit, it is assumed that you are disrupting class to make a call. A student using a cell phone in any manner during class will be summarily ejected from the classroom for the day.

 

  Drops - Generally speaking, I will automatically drop anyone with 1 ½ - 2 consecutive weeks of absences – sometimes fewer if an absence occurs just before a drop deadline.

 

  Incompletes - an incomplete will only be given to a student caught in the throes of a crisis not related to class performance.

 

Gradebook: I use Gradebook to post your grades, and as a means of communication. 

 

Lectures

                                                                          Readings in

Week    Lecture topic                             Relethford                [Zihlman]

 

(1) Review of class policies (these can be viewed online if you miss this lecture).

 

      The discipline of anthropology and               Introduction

       the field of biological anthropology                 

  

    Receive natural selection and population genetics worksheets

       Receive primate anatomy exam

 

(2)  Science, evolution, and natural selection         Chpt. 1        [Section 1 Intro., 1-1, 1-2]

                                                                                                 Chpt. 4: 98-102

(3)  Inheritance and population genetics               Chpt. 2: 44-52      [1-10, 1-11, 1-12, 6-13]

     Chpt. 3

       Wednesday September 13th  Syllabus Quiz       

      

(4)  Cell biology, DNA and protein synthesis       Chpt. 2: 33-41   [Section 2 Intro., 2-1 – 2-5]

     NS worksheet due Mon. September 17th                

 

(5 )  Genetics worksheet due Wednesday September 26th        

 

(6)   Test # 1 Wednesday, October 3rd

 

Epigenetics and behavioral genetics             Chpt. 14: 344-346      [3-14]                            

 

(7)  The living primates: ecological concepts,            Chpt. 4           [Section 3 & 4 Intro.,

      core characteristics                                                                 1-6 , 1-7,  3-1 – 3-3,

3-5, 3-6, 4-1, 4-4 – 4-9, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-18, 4-20, 4-22, 4-33 - 4-35; Appendix, 3-21, 3-24]                                                                                   

                                                                                                Whitehead: Chpt. 1 

(8)  Primate anatomy and cladistics                           Chpt. 5          

 

(9) Primate social structure and behavior             Chpts. 6 & 7   [3-4, 3-23, 3-29, 4-33]                                                                                          

  …. capacity for learning, and communication.                          [3-32 – 3-35]

   

(10)  Primate Anatomy Exam due Monday October 29th   No late exams accepted!

 

Test #2  Wednesday October 31st

 

(11)  Dating techniques.                                            Chpt. 8                [1-21, 1-22, 5-4]

 

(12) The origins of the primates           Chpt. 9    [4-2, 4-3, 4-10, 4-11, 4-27, 4-28, 4-29]

 

(13)  The origins of the Hominidae                           Chpt. 10 [5-5 – 5-13, 5-16 – 5-22]

 

Test #3 Wednesday November 21st

 

(14)  Early Homo                                                    Chpt. 11                    [5-23 – 5-25]

 

(15)  archaic Homo sapiens                                           Chpt. 12 ; Chpt. 16:410-11  [5-26]

 

(16)  Homo sapiens sapiens                                            Chpt. 13                    [5-27 – 5-29]

 

(16)  Final on Friday of the last week of class:  December 14th

  

Section 2049

 

Fall 2018    Anthropology 1:  Introduction to Physical Anthropology 

Dr. Blair Gibson                                                                Phone No: (310) 532-3670 x 3580                            

Office: ArtB 330 D                                                                email: dbgibson@elcamino.edu  

Office hrs: MWFri 1:00-2:00 PM; TuTh 8:15-9:15 AM

Faculty web page: www.elcamino.edu/faculty/dbgibson/

 

Course Description: This course is a survey of the state of knowledge and current issues in the field of biological anthropology. The course will cover natural selection, genetics and physiology, primate cladistics, anatomy, primate behavior, and the fossil record for the evolution of the primate order. 

Important Note: This is a hybrid course. With the exception of the Primate Anatomy exam, the syllabus quiz and all objective exams will be taken online via Canvas.

 

Texts

Required: The Human Species, 9th ed., John Relethford               

Recommended: A Photographic Atlas for Physical Anthropology, Paul F.  Whitehead et al.

                                    : The Human Evolution Coloring Book, 2nd ed., Adrienne Zihlman.

    

   Course resources: Syllabi, handouts, and Powerpoint lectures can be viewed and downloaded on the class web page, accessed through my faculty index page. Copies of the textbooks are on reserve in the library in the reserve reading area.

 

Course Objectives / Student Outcomes

 

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of the scientific method and its significance to science.

 

2. Describe and evaluate the major ideas that preceded and led to the development of evolutionary theory and analyze modern theories of Darwinian evolution through natural selection.

3. Identify and describe the processes by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next.

4. Identify and discuss the various components of the DNA molecule and the process of protein synthesis.

5. Explain and assess the mechanisms of evolutionary change and explain how each one contributes to the evolutionary process.

6. Contrast point and chromosomal mutations and discuss the significance of point mutations to evolution.

7. List the major anatomical characteristics of primates associated with movement and the senses, and explain how they evolved as adaptations to an arboreal environment.

8. Contrast the major forms of primate social structure and describe their relationship to the primate species’ ecology.

9. Explain the differences between relative and chronometric dating and provide an example of chronometric dating using a radiometric technique.

10. Evaluate the benefits of bipedalism in reference to the particular environment in which most hominid evolution occurred.

11. Compare and contrast the skull characteristics of Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus (or Paranthropus) boisei, and Homo habilis in relation to the particular diet of each.

12. Contrast the anatomical characteristics of Homo habilis and Homo erectus, and analyze those contrasts in reference to their respective environments and subsistence strategies.

13. Analyze the characteristics of Homo neanderthalensis in reference to the environment in which this hominid lived.

14. Evaluate the models that account for the origin of Homo sapiens, outlining the major criteria and evidence supporting each.

15. Outline the cultural stages in the evolution of the genus Homo, making reference to the particular Homo species, tool industry, and environmental context associated with each stage.

16. Explain the difference between physiological adjustments and adaptations and explain skin color and body build as adaptations to particular environments.

Anthropology 1 Student Learning Outcome

 

#1 Natural Selection: In a written assignment, students will explain how natural selection is related to environmental factors by using an example that identifies key processes of natural selection and illustrates how selective pressures can change. #2 Primate Arboreal Adaptations. In an in-class assignment or objective exam question, students will demonstrate an understanding of primate adaptation by describing the major anatomical characteristics of primates associated with movement and the senses, and indentifying how they evolved as adaptations to arboreal environments. #3 Human Evolution In a written assignment or objective exam question(s), students will demonstrate an understanding of human evolution by comparing and contrasting the anatomical and behavioral features of modern Homo sapiens with various extinct species of the Genus Homo (e.g. Neandertals, H.erectus, H. habilis).

 

****************************************************************

 

ADA Statement: El Camino College is committed to providing educational accommodations for students with disabilities upon the timely request by the student to the instructor. A student with a disability, who would like to request an academic accommodation, is responsible for identifying herself/himself to the instructor and to the SpecialResourcesCenter. To make arrangements for academic accommodations, contact the SpecialResourcesCenter.

  

Course requirements

 

A quiz on the syllabus, 4 tests, a worksheet, a genetics problem set, an anatomy test.

 

All exams will be multiple choice and are non-cumulative, and will include questions on any films that are shown. They will be administered during the last hour of the class meeting. Bring Scantron form 882 ES to all exams and the syllabus quiz.  

 

Grading      Quizz                                                       5% (15 pts.)

                     Worksheet and problem set                    15% (50 pts.)

                     Exams                                                   80% (260 pts.)

 

Point breakdown: Syllabus quiz 15 pts., natural selection worksheet 25 pts., Hardy-Weinberg worksheet 25 pts., take-home primate anatomy exam 60 pts., objective exams 50 pts. ea.

 

The grading scale for the exams and syllabus quiz hinges on the highest grade that was achieved on the exam. It then descends in 10% increments from that score.

 

Extra Credit: students are encouraged to go to relevant public lectures and do oral presentations of newsworthy items before the class for extra credit up to a cap of 40 points. No extra credit will be accepted after the 14th week. The privilege of doing extra credit is contingent upon maintaining an acceptable attendance record.  See the extra credit guidelines for details.

 

*** If you have any special problems or pressures, please discuss them with me as soon as you can, not at the end of the term!***

 

Standards of Student Behavior

 

Student responsibilities: Full participation is expected from the participants in this course. This responsibility entails attending class meetings, turning in work punctually, and reading the assigned materials. There are, sadly, consequences for not living up to these responsibilities:

 

  Late assignments – With the exception of the primate anatomy exam I accept late work, but the grade on an assignment is dropped by the point equivalent of one grade level (10%) for every class meeting it is late before it is graded. Unexcused absences or mechanical difficulties with a computer or printer are not valid excuses. I will not accept late assignments during the last week of class. Assignments handed in late are graded at my convenience.

 

  “Lost” assignments - My operative assumption: I don't lose assignments. If it is claimed that I have lost a student’s work the following procedure is followed: 1) I will request that the student immediately produce a back-up copy of the assignment in question. The backup must be furnished to me within 24 hours of the request. 2) A search is made of my office, car, and home for the student’s original work. If the original is not found, 3) I retain the backup until the very end of the semester. At the end of the semester I look over the student’s record of attendance and assignment completion. If the student has missed 3 classes or fewer, and has turned in all other work punctually then I grade the backup and enter the points without deduction. If the student’s class attendance and work submission record is irregular, or the so-called back-up looks fishy then I conclude that I have been lied to and not only throw the backup into the trash can, but also erase all of the student’s extra credit points from my records. I will not assume responsibility for any work or other submissions purportedly shoved under my door or placed in my box.

 

  Attendance – For this class I will always take attendance at the beginning of the period, and often again before each hourly segment. I don't adjust attendance retroactively, so if a student misses roll it is the student's responsibility to seek a correction on the day of the tardy, preferably at the next break. A student who is absent on a given day is still responsible for what transpired in class on that day. An absence/tardy total exceeding two weeks of meetings will result in a student being barred from accumulating further extra credit. The student is to come to the instructor's office during a break or the office hour to obtain any handout or unclaimed work a student has missed due to an absence. Attendance will figure into my grading at the end of term if a student’s grade standing is within a range of 3% below an upper grade boundary. A student will receive the higher grade if the tardy/absence total does not exceed a week’s worth.

 

  Make-ups: No make-ups are allowed on the syllabus quiz, take-home anatomy test or the final exam. The anatomy test must be turned in by the due date for credit. A make-up of any of the objective exams will be allowed only on account of an extraordinary, documentable situation.

 

  Unrighteous behavior: I don't fool around with those who cheat. Cheating includes copying off another's test, copying another student's assignment, or lifting material from a source including the texts and websites without proper acknowledgement (plagiarism). Academic dishonesty in connection with extra credit work will result in disbarment from the privilege of extra credit and the loss of all extra credit points

 

The following is a list of behavior that is disruptive, and is frequently associated with academic failure: 1) leave the classroom while lecture is in progress, and for added effect, cross directly in front of me to make sure I lose my train of thought. Doing this will result in the student will earn an unexcused absence for the day. It is never OK to leave in mid- lecture! 2) text or play games on your cell phone, 3) talk to your neighbor, 4) use your laptop computer – laptop or tablet use is strictly forbidden, 6)  sleep while lecture is in progress. 7) bring an active cell phone to class, and if you really want to see an enraged instructor, take a cell phone call while class is in progress. If you take a cell phone with you during a bathroom visit, it is assumed that you are disrupting class to make a call. A student using a cell phone during class will be summarily ejected from the classroom for the day. These behaviors are all disruptive to the learning experience, and are usually exhibited by people who end up dropping or failing the class.    

 

Drops - Generally speaking, I will automatically drop anyone with 1 ½ - 2 consecutive weeks of absences. However, oversights occur, and ultimately it is the responsibility of the student to withdraw from the class if the student wishes to do so.

 

Incompletes - an incomplete will only be given to a student caught in the throes of a crisis not related to class performance.

 

Gradebook warning: I use Gradebook to post your scores and submit your grades.

 

Letters of recommendation: I will not write a letter of recommendation for a student reflecting a class that is still in progress. Better letters result from having taken multiple classes from me. 

 

Lectures

                                                                             Readings in

Week    Lecture topic and readings            Relethford                [Zihlman]

 

(1)  The field of biological anthropology               Introduction 

     Receive natural selection worksheet

 

(2)  Science, evolution, and natural selection         Chpt. 1       [Section 1 Intro., 1-1, 1-2]

     Chpt. 4: 98-102

     Receive population genetics worksheet      

 

(3) Inheritance and population genetics                 Chpt. 2: 44-52     [1-10, 1-11, 1-12, 6-13]

                                                                              Chpt. 3

      Monday September 10th Syllabus quiz

 

(4)  Cell biology, DNA and protein synthesis       Chpt. 2: 33-41   [Section 2 Intro., 2-1 – 2-5]

 

Natural Selection worksheet due Friday September 21st         

 

(5)  Behavioral genetics and epigenetics                  Chpt. 14: 344-346                  [3-14]                          

 Population Genetics worksheet due Friday  September 28th

(6) Test # 1 Monday October 1st on Chapters 1-4  

 

(6)  The living primates: ecological concepts,       Chpts. 4 & 5           [Section 3 & 4 Intro.,

      cladistics, and core characteristics                  Whitehead Chpt. 1    1-6 , 1-7,  3-1 – 3-3,

3-5, 3-6, 4-1, 4-4 – 4-9, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-18, 4-20, 4-22, 4-33 - 4-35; Appendix, 3-21, 3-24]                                                                                   

                                                    

(7)  Primate comparative anatomy   Appendix; Whitehead: Chpt. 1 [3-8 – 3-17, 5-14 – 5-17]                                                                                       

      

(8) Primate social structure and behavior                     Chpt. 6        [3-4, 3-23, 3-29, 4-33]                                                                                          

  …. capacity for learning, and communication.            Chpt. 7       [3-32 – 3-35]

  

   Primate Anatomy Exam due Friday October 26th   No late exams accepted!                                                       

 

(9)  Dating techniques.                                                 Chpt. 8             [1-21, 1-22, 5-4]

      Test #2  Monday October 29th on chpts. 4-7, & behavioral genetics 

(10)   The origins of the primates         Chpt. 9    [4-2, 4-3, 4-10, 4-11, 4-27, 4-28, 4-29]

 

(11)  The origins of the Hominidae                              Chpt. 10  [5-5 – 5-13, 5-16 – 5-22]                                                                                   

(12)  Test #3 Monday November 20th  on chpts. 8-10

 

(12)   Early Homo                                                        Chpt. 11            [5-23 – 5-25]            

 

(13)                                                                                          No class - Thanksgiving 

 

(14)  Early Homo                                                          Chpt. 11            [5-23 – 5-25]            

 

(15)  Archaic Homo sapiens.                                             Chpt. 12;   Chpt. 16:410-11  [5-26]

 

(16)  Homo sapiens sapiens                                             Chpt. 13                   [5-27 – 5-29]

 

 Final exam on Friday of the last week of class on chpts. 11 - 13: December 14th

 

Extra Credit Guidelines     Dr. Gibson

 

     As I value a strong work ethic, students are encouraged to improve their scores through extra-credit work. I keep a running tally of extra credit points at the far column of my grade book. These are added to a student’s point total after I have calculated the semester grade scale. I don’t log extra credit submissions individually in my book or in Gradebook due to the varied forms that they may take, so students should retain items that have been handed back to them in case there is a dispute concerning what the student has done. The effect that extra credit points have on a student’s grade depends upon where they stand with respect to grade boundaries, and how much extra credit work has been done. There is an overall cap on extra credit for every class – consult your syllabus.

 

No presentations or any other submissions will be allowed during the final two weeks of class.

 

There are three ways to earn extra credit:

 

1) I believe that rather than being a purely solitary exercise - the knowledge that the student gains should be shared with the class. Extra credit can therefore take the form of a short (c. 5 min.) oral presentation on something the student has come across in the media that is relevant to the course material. This exercise benefits both the student (gaining confidence in public speaking), and the class. Yes, this also means that written reports are not acceptable. Any of the following may be turned to as a source: a recent newspaper or magazine article, a book, a film or TV program, a relevant museum exhibit, or a public lecture on a topic relevant to the class. Things culled from internet media outlets are ok, too, except as noted below

 

Exclusions:

 

     It is not a term paper or research project. This means that reports on old books, chapters from textbooks, or on a topic that you have researched will not be allowed. Please don't go to the library and dig up something arcane or obscure from a scientific journal. It should be something that the class can easily relate to, and relevant to some aspect of the course material; e.g. in the case of physical anthropology, no dinosaurs, please. The article must be from a publication that appeared this year, preferably within the last few months. Promotional internet press releases, internet summaries of full length articles appearing in print elsewhere, informational texts from institutional web sites, and Wikipedia or other online encyclopedia entries are not ok. Anything from the web should be about four printed pages long minimum. Finally, extra credit means doing extra work, so reports drawn from your life experiences, however interesting, are not allowed.

 

     Please clear whatever it is you are considering with me prior to class, and give me an idea what you are going to say or do. Please, no DVD’s. The presentation should ideally be 5 minutes or under. Please retain a copy of the article you presented, initialed by myself, in case there is a question about your extra-credit points at the end of term

 

Points and limitations:  I will give 10 points per presentation. Students are limited to 1 presentation per class meeting, and no more than three presentations total will be allowed. Students may not duplicate the presentation of another student.

 

2) An officially sanctioned visit or excursion to a relevant museum exhibit, conference, symposium, ritual gathering, public lecture, collection of primates, or archaeological site. Trips made by the anthropology club often do fall into this category, and can earn the participant points.

 

   Unless the visit is to an institution listed at the back of this handout or to a lecture or conference announced in class, the visit must be sanctioned by myself before points will be allocated. Do not go to something and expect it to be retroactively sanctioned. Sanctioning depends upon its relevance to the class. The number of points awarded is variable, depending upon the distance the student traveled in order to participate, and the cost of the event to the student. Visits to most museums are worth 10 pts.

 

If you visit a large museum, make certain that you view an exhibit relevant to the class’ subject matter. If you go to a conference where multiple presentations are made, briefly describe each presentation that you witnessed to ensure full credit.

 

Submit a one-page, typed description of the museum exhibit with the ticket attached. Your report must convince me that you viewed exhibits at the institution, and yes, I do check their websites.

 

3) Attending a free department-sponsored lecture or anthropology club fundraiser. As the former are free and occur on campus. 5 pts. are awarded per lecture. In order to gain credit, the student must submit a 1 page typed summary of the lecture. This summary must reach me within a week of the event. A receipt with your name on it suffices for a fundraiser.   

 

A word of advice: Don't wait until the last minute to do extra credit. The reasons are: 1) the instructor may be absent on the last day when presentations are allowed. 2) Many other people do this, and they may have the same article to read, and only one person can present any one article. 3) articles don't always conveniently present themselves in moments of desperation, and 4) you may not make it to the target institution in time for admittance.

    

5) Finally, extra credit is meant to be an assist to students who are otherwise making an effort to do well in the class, it is not meant to be a means of compensating for poor attendance. Therefore, students with an excess of two week’s worth of unexcused absences will be barred from acquiring additional extra credit points. Students will also be barred from earning extra credit if they disrupt class with tardies – arriving at class after role taking has ended. Each tardy will count as ½ unexcused absence.

 

Relevant Institutions (by discipline). You may only visit an institution for credit that corresponds to the class that you are enrolled in. The credit is earned for the visit to the facility, one does earn separate allotments of credit for separate exhibits or artifacts within the facility.  

 

Physical Anthropology (Anthropology 1):

San Diego Museum of Man – Credit only for viewing the physical anthropology exhibits on the second floor (ticket is absolutely required to obtain credit).

Southern California Primate Research Forum (scprf.ucsc.edu)

            Gibbon Conservation Center (gibboncenter.org). Note: You cannot visit this institution for credit after the exam which concerns non-human primates.

            Natural History Museum – small exhibition on hominin evolution in the Age of Mammals Hall - 5 pts. Only. You must describe the hominin exhibit, not the exhibits of other mammals.

 

Cultural Anthropology (Anthropology 2):

Fowler Museum of Cultural History/ Fowler Museum at UCLA

            Bowers Museum of Cultural Art (www.bowers.org). Address: 2002 N. Main St.

 Santa Ana

            San Diego Museum of Man

            Autry National Center (non-cowboy exhibits only).

            Pacific Asia Museum

            Japanese American Museum & Chinese American Museum - both in downtown LA.

Skirball Museum (cultural exhibits only, no history or pop-culture exhibits)

Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (Native American exhibits only)

 

Archaeology (Anthropology 3) see also institutions listed below under Ancient Civilizations:

UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology   (www.ioa.ucla.edu).

            Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (archaeology exhibits 5 pts. only).

            Bowers Museum of Cultural Art (call ahead to enquire about archaeology-themed exhibits).

Getty Center in Malibu (not the one in the Sepulveda pass, unless there is an archaeology

exhibit). You will receive 12 pts. if you had to pay for parking – you must submit parking receipt.

Pacific Asia Museum, Los Robles Ave, Pasadena.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art (archaeological exhibits only – e.g the pre-Columbian art in the Art of the Americas Hall, exhibits on ancient SE Asian art)

Chen Art Gallery (in the Sunrider Corporate headquarters on Carson, you must call ahead for an appointment to see it (310) 781-3808).

 

Ancient Civilizations of the World/ of the Americas (Anthropology 12 & 8)

Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), archaeological exhibits only (e.g. pre-Columbian works in their Art of the Americas gallery. See their website for relevant lectures as well.

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (archaeology exhibits only: 5 pts.)

            Bowers Museum of Cultural Art (call ahead to enquire about archaeology-themed exhibits,

 or go on to their website).

            San Diego Museum of Man – Small permanent exhibit on the Maya, only for Anthro. 8

 students (10 pts. only unless there is a relevant special exhibit).

            Getty Center in Malibu (Anthro. 12 only, except for temporary exhibits).

            Chen Art Gallery (Anthro. 12 only).

             Mesoamerican Network – Now based at CSULA, visit their website for details on the

 biannual conference.

Skirball Museum: mostly does exhibits on Jewish history, but has a small permanent archaeology exhibit. Thursday is their free day.

Mesoamerican Society – Also based at CSULA. Mesoamericansocietycsula.blogspot.com

            New World Archaeology Council – sponsors occasional symposia.

            Archaeological Institute of America – sponsors talks primarily on Old World Archaeology

around the southland, but occasionally on the New World as well. Check their website for

information under the Los Angeles or Orange Co. Chapters.

  

 

Zoo Visit Extra Credit – 20 pts.

 

You can visit a single Zoo for 20 pts. extra credit, but I have to have some assurance that you have gained some knowledge about primates, so to that end you have to create a fact sheet concerning your visit. In order to do that, you have to demonstrate that you have viewed one primate from each of the following four categories for a total of four primates, The categories are Strepsirrhini, Platyrhini, Cercopithecoidea, and Hominoidea. Look at the textbook or go online to the class website to find out which animals are in these categories. It is also a good idea to look at the online lecture on primate modes of locomotion to familiarize yourself with the terminology used to describe the differing forms of locomotion. Then supply the following information for each primate group:

 

1. The name of the facility that you visited.

2. Species name and taxonomic categories, including Family, Genus, Species, and Subspecies (if applicable). The level or rank of each taxon in the Linnean system must be identified, e.g. Genus: Homo.

3. Country and region of origin.

4. Aspects of its’ niche including when it is active, its diet, and the specifics concerning its location within the ecosystem of origin. Use biological terminology when appropriate, e.g. “nocturnal” instead of “active during the night.” Characterize the main tendency of the animal’s diet by using the appropriate term.

5. Name its’ primary mode of locomotion.

 

It is mandatory that you staple your ticket to your report. Photographs are not necessary but welcome.  This fact sheet must be typed and double-spaced. Only one facility can be visited. The report you write has to be your own – no co-productions if you go there with someone else in the class! This fact sheet will be graded, so you may not earn all 20 points if mistakes are made, especially gross errors such as not supplying a required primate because of a misidentification.

 

 

  

 

 

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

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Assignments:  

 

Anthropology 1  Natural Selection Worksheet   Blair Gibson

 

Part 1. Scenario

 

     Sifakas (genus: Propithecus) are a kind of lemur that lives on the island of Madagascar. One species in the arid south, Verreaux's sifaka, has fur that is almost entirely white, except for small patches of black on their faces. Verreaux's sifakas have very long hind legs. These primates have been observed leaping tremendous distances between giant thorny cactus-like plants that grow there, and in which they make their homes. Their hind legs are so long these sifakas are unable to walk on the ground on all four limbs and so must bounce. As they rarely come down to the ground this is not much of a problem.

 

    Verreaux's sifakas also obtain all of the water they need by licking dew off of leaves and eating the leaves of the desert plants and trees. It is a social primate living in small groups of 4 - 8, and is active during the daytime (diurnal).

 

    Another species of sifaka, Milne-Edwards’ sifaka, lives in the tropical rainforest and is somewhat different in coloration, having much more brown and black in the fur.

 

In the following worksheet, supply the information that would create an argument which incorporates the principles of natural selection, explaining how the Verreaux’s sifakas became the way they are. Your answers, however, will focus on changes to its (fictitious) ancestor (see below), not on the modern lemur. It would be wise to select a single trait, and to stick with it throughout this exercise. Assume that for most traits the distribution of variation is continuous. It would be helpful to make graphs of the variation for answers for 3) and 6). Refer to the graph on Irish women’s height for inspiration. In this regard numerical answers, when appropriate to the trait, are preferred over a vague comparative adjective (e.g. 12 cm vs “shorter”) when outlining the variation in a trait.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variation Example:  five individuals

 

Trait: foot length

 

At one end of the range of variation in this trait was an individual that had a foot that was 180mm long.

 

At the other end of the range of variation in this trait was an individual that had a foot that was 261mm long.

 

What was the average expression of this trait? The average foot was 221mm long.

 

 

___________________________________________________________

 

Propithecus pleisoverrauxii Exercise (note: I made up this animal)

 

Traits: hind leg length, leaping ability, fur color proportions, activity time, group size, mode of hydration.  

 

1) Target Ancestral Species: Propithecus pleisoverrauxii (lived c. 10 million years ago.

2) The physical or behavioral trait under consideration:

This trait will be subjected to natural selection. From the 6-7 traits described above, select and name one below.

 

_________________________________________________

 

3) Variation in the trait

At one end of the range of variation in this trait were lemurs that

 

 _________________________________________________________

(Describe the expression of the trait at one extreme of the range of variation here)

 

 

At the other end of the range of variation in this trait were lemurs that:

 

__________________________________________________________

Where along this range of variation were most of the lemurs distributed? What was the average expression of this trait?

 

___________________________________________________________

 

4) Natural selection:

 

Name the force of natural selection that came to affect this population, and which ultimately caused a change in the expression of the trait named on the last page. Describe the connection of this force to the trait.

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

As a consequence of their exposure to this force of selection, those lemurs that(answer with respect to the range of variation in the trait)

 

_______________________________________survived to a

 

greater degree than lemurs that___________________________

 

 ______________. These latter lemurs tended to___________ more frequently than the former lemurs as a consequence of their maladaptation.

 

5) Inheritance

 

As a consequence of selection, those lemurs that (describe the successful variation again)____________________________

 

were also more likely to__________________________________.

 

As a consequence, genes for________________________________

 

tended to be passed on with greater frequency than genes

 

for __________________________________________to the next generation.

 

6) Adaptation

 

Describe the range of variation displayed by this trait in a subsequent generation of sifaka offspring after it has been affected by the force of natural selection that you named above over many generations. Like before, this range should have a minimum, maximum, and average.

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

 

Part 2. Sexual selection. Choose one of the below scenarios (not both), and write a response that reflects an understanding of the theory of sexual selection.

 

1)      You receive a telephone call from Dr. Yue Rong. He thinks that you really don't understand Darwin's theory of sexual selection at all. To put you to a test, he asks you the following question. "Answer me two or three sentences why you think that the frequency of male pattern baldness is so high. One would think that it would confer no physical advantage to those who are afflicted by it, and women would find baldness unattractive." Accepting what he says about baldness as plausible, compose a response.

 

2)     A committee of the IOC has heard about your work in sexual selection, and thinks you might be able to help them understand a current problem. Through the years there has been a dramatic rise in female exhibitionism connected with the Olympic competitions. Athletes have been appearing nude in men's magazines and videos, and are competing while wearing outfits that are rapidly shrinking (think women’s beach volleyball). They don't understand why this is a trend among women and not men, and are concerned that if things go on the way they are, soon women will soon be competing nude as in the earliest Olympics. Write a short explanation for this behavior for the committee.

 

 

 

Anthropology 1  Populations Genetics Worksheet

 

 

Directions: show all work and clearly identify the answer! Do your work on a separate piece of paper. I will not read work done on this handout. For the purposes of this assignment, only a difference greater than .01 between the observed and expected genotype frequencies is significant.

 

  

1. You are a graduate student in physical anthropology, and your lazy PhD supervisor, Dr. T. Enure Abuser, has thrown a bunch of genetic data in your face. "I must leave tomorrow to attend an Insane Clown Posse concert. I think I have evidence that the Tay-Sachs allele is in disequilibrium among New York Ashkenazi Jews. Have the results ready for me when I return. You meekly comply as you are his research assistant, and you will be facing your written exams next week. So:

  

A) Run this data through the Hardy-Weinberg model and determine and state whether or not the population is in equilibrium, and state how you know this to be true. 

  

                   TT        Tt        tt (at birth) 

                   8000      250       2

 

 

B) Looking at the numbers above, what does the pattern of the distribution of the population among these genotypes tell you about the fitness of these three genotypes? (read what the textbook has to say about the Tay-Sachs disease, see index, and discuss each genotype).

 

 

2. You are in Australia, and your blood testing of Aborigines in a region has revealed that the population can be broken down into the following blood groups.

 

  

                     AA      AO      OO

                     150     410     400

 

 

1. Determine whether or not this population is in equilibrium, and tell me how you know.

 

2. Determine the survival efficiency of each genotype by dividing the observed genotype frequencies by the expected genotype frequencies.

 

3. Determine the relative fitness of each genotype by dividing each of the survival efficiency values by the largest one.

 

4. Which genotype would be the most fit, the least fit? Explain how you know in terms of the results step 3.

  

5. What may have happened in the past that may have lead to the complete absence of the B allele among Australian aborigines? Assume that it did exist at one point, or appeared by mutation. Refer to the forces of evolution and provide one or more scenarios to illustrate your answers.

  

Optional Extra Credit - worth up to 10 pts.

  

The pea that Mendel worked with, Pisum sativum, is self-pollinating. Mendel is walking through the countryside reading a book, when, unknown to him, a pea seed of his F1 hybrid generation falls out of his pocket. It finds moist soil and germinates. Suppose that this pea is able to propagate itself over three generations (not counting the initial pea as a generation). Looking at just one pair of alleles (any pair), and assuming that each pea plant of each generation produces four successful offspring, how do the genotype ratios change over time? Is evolution occurring?  Hint: The Hardy-Weinberg model is not appropriate in this case.

 

 

Name_________________________________        60 points

 

 

 

 

Anthropology 1    Primate Anatomy Test      Dr. Gibson

 

Complete this exam by studying the differences in anatomy in the specimens in the display case by the door inside the anthropology museum (ArtB 301). Restrict your answers to skeletal anatomy, and to the specimens that are on display. The more valid answers you come up with, the more points you will be rewarded so don’t feel restricted by the numbers on the lines – you may also attach extra sheets of paper. The quiz must be turned in to the instructor by the test due date in the syllabus in order to receive credit.

 

Section 1

 

I. On the first line name the species in the case that are brachiators or semi-brachiators, and then list at least 5 anatomical traits that are specific to brachiation.

 

Species:_____________________________________________________

Traits:

1.___________________________________________________________

 

2.___________________________________________________________

 

3.___________________________________________________________

 

4.___________________________________________________________

 

5.___________________________________________________________

 

II. List the species in the case whose mode of locomotion is quadrupedalism, excluding knuckle-walking.

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

III. Reflecting on the primate in the case that is a terrestrial quadruped (but excluding the chimpanzee) list the traits that are common to this form of locomotion.

 

1.___________________________________________________________

 

2.___________________________________________________________

 

 

 

IV. Cite at least two traits reflected in the skeletal anatomy of the tree shrew that indicates that it is not a primate.

 

1.___________________________________________________________

 

2.___________________________________________________________

 

 

V. List the insectivores that are on display. After comparing them, name at least two traits that they possess in common that reflects their diet.

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

1.___________________________________________________________

 

2.___________________________________________________________

 

 

VI. Name at least two traits of the apes on display in the exhibit that distinguishes them from the monkeys.

 

1.___________________________________________________________

 

2.___________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

VII. Identify the strepsirhine (prosimian) (1), and (2) name at least one trait that distinguishes it from the monkeys.

 

1.__________________________________2._______________________

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

VIII. Which two quadrupedal primates are hoppers or leapers, and what are the anatomical characteristics that they have in common which is related to their mode of locomotion?

 

Section 2  Human Anatomy (Medical terminology only)

 

1. That end of a long bone closest to the trunk of the body is called the ______________________end.

 

2. The opposite end of the bone is called the _____________ end.

 

3. Where two bones connect, they are said to______________.

(answer is a single verb)

 

4. The medical term for the thumb is the__________________.

 

5. The medical term for the big toe is the________________.

 

6. The two lower bones of the arm are the__________________

and the _________________________.

 

7. The upper arm bone is the_____________________________.

 

8. Those vertebrae between the head and the shoulders are the __________________vertebrae.

 

9. The next lower vertebrae are the ______________ vertebrae.

 

10. And the lowest vertebrae are the_________________ vertebrae (not counting the coccyx or sacrum).

 

11. The upper blades of the pelvis are referred to as the

_________________.

 

12. The lower loop-shaped bone of the pelvis is the _________________.

 

13. The two bones that make up the shoulder joint (excluding the humerus) are the

___________________and the _______________________.

 

14. The upper leg bone is the ___________________________.

 

15. The larger of the two lower leg bones is the ____________.

 

16. The various finger bones are the______________________.

 

17. With regard to its position on the palm in respect to the other digits the pollex is ______________________while the hallux is_________________________(both words begin with the letter “a”).

 

Instructions: Fill in missing labels on both skulls below.

 email instructor for image

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


  


 


 


 


underside of skull 

    

 

 

 

Taxonomy Table - Anthropology 1

Order: Primates   Suborder: Strepsirhini

Infraorder             

 

Superfamily    

Family

Genus 

Number of species

Common Name

           

Lemuriforms                              

Lemuroidea

Indiriidae

Indris

1

Indrid

"

"

"

Propithecus

9

Sifaka

"

"

"

Avahi

9

Wooly Lemur

"

"

Daubentoniidae

Daubenonia

1

Aye-aye

"

"

Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur

26

Sportive Lemur

"

"

Lemuridae

Eulemur

12

Brown Lemur

"

"

"

Hapalemur

5

Gentle Lemur

"

"

"

Lemur

6

Ring-tailed Lemur

"

"

"

Varecia

2

Ruffed Lemur

"

Lorisoidea

Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus

2

Mouse Lemur

"

"

Mirza

1

Corquerel's Mouse Lemur

"

"

"

Cheirogaleus

2

Dwarf Lemur

"

"

"

Allocebus

1

Hairy-Eared Dwarf Lemur

"

"

"

Phaner

4

Fork-Marked Lemur

"

"

Galagidae

Otolemur

3

Greater Bush Baby

"

"

"

Eouticus

2

Needle-clawed Bush Baby

"

"

"

Galago

24

Lesser Bush Baby

"

"

Lorisidae

Periodicticus

1

Potto

"

"

"

Arctocebus

1

Angwantibo

"

"

"

Nycticebus

2

Slow Loris

"

"

"

Loris

2

Slender Loris

Suborder: Haplorhini

Infraorder: Tarsiformes

 

Family

Genus

Number of Species

Common Name

Tarsiidae

Tarsius

9

Tarsier

Suborder: Haplorhini

Infraorder: Simiiformes

Parvorder: Platyrrhini

           

Superfamily

Family

Subfamily

Genus

Number of Species

Common Name

           

Ceboidea

Callitricidae

Callitrichinae

Cebuella

1

Pygmy Marmoset

 

"

"

Callithrix

3

Marmoset

 

"

"

Saguinus

11

Tamarin

 

"

"

Leontopithecus

1

Lion Tamarin

 

"

"

Callimico

1

Goeldi's Marmoset

 

Cebidae

Cebinae

Saimiri

2

Squirrel Monkey

 

"

"

Cebus

4

Capuchin

 

"

Aotinae

Aotus

1

Owl Monkey

   

Callicibinae

Callicebus

3

Titi

 

Pitheciidae

Pitheciinae

Pithecia

3

Saki

 

"

"

Chiropotes

2

Bearded Saki

 

"

"

Cacajao

3

Uakari

 

Atelidae

Alouattinae

Alouatta

17

Howler Monkey

   

Atelinae

Lagothrix

2

Wooly Monkey

     

Brachyteles

1

Wooly Spider Monkey

     

Ateles

4

Spider Monkey

     

Oreonax

1

Yellow-tailed Wooly Monkey

Suborder: Haplorhini

Infraorder: Simiiformes

Parvorder: Catarrhini

Superfamily:

Family

Subfamily

Genus

Number of Species

Common Name

           

Cercopithecoidea

Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecinae

Allenopithecus

1

Swamp Guenon

 

   

Erythocebus

1

Patas

     

Miopithecus

1

Talapoin Guenon

     

Cercopithecus

28

Guenon

     

Macaca

22

Macaque

     

Cercocebus

6

White-eyelid Mangabey

     

Lophocebus

6

Crested Mangabey

     

Rungwecebus

1

Kipunji

     

Papio

5

Baboon

     

Mandrillus

2

Mandrill

     

Theropithecus

1

Gelada Baboon

   

Colobinae

Procolobus

1

Olive Colobus

     

Piliocolobus

2

Red Colobus

     

Colobus

4

Colobus

     

Presbytis

12

Langur

     

Trachypithecus

17

Lutung

     

Semnopithecus

7

Grey Langurs

     

Nasalis

1

Proboscis Monkey

     

Simias

1

Pig-tailed Langur

     

Pygathrix

1

Douc Langur

     

Rhinopithecus

2

Snub-nosed Monkey

Suborder: Haplorhini

Infraorder: Simiiformes

Parvorder: Catarrhini

  Superfamily

Family

SubFamily

Genus

Number of Species

Common Name

Hominoidea

Hylobatidae

 

Hylobates

4

Gibbon

     

Hoolock

2

Hoolock Gibbon

 

   

Nomascus

5

Gibbon

     

Symphalagus

1

Siamang

 

Hominidae

Ponginae

Pongo

2

Orangutan

   

Homininae

Gorilla

2

Gorilla

     

Pan

2

Chimpanzee

     

Homo

1

Human

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Course Material:

 

Sections 2035, 2051

 

Anthropology 1                          Study Guide for Test #1                                  Dr. Gibson

 

 This study guide is intended to tell you what you should study in order to do well on the exam. It is not intended as a substitute for study.

 

Chapter 1   Science and Evolution

 

Scientists: Charles Darwin; J-B. de Lamarck, Sigmund Freud, Jenny McCarthy.

 

Vocabulary: physical science, humanity, holism/holistic, cross-cultural perspective, evolution, extinction, species, breeding, artificial selection (incl. biotechnology), equilibrium, stabilizing selection, population, species, continuous and discontinuous variation, adaptation, mass extinction (pgs. 91-93), test implication.

 

Theories: Acquired Characteristics, Natural Selection

 

What is anthropology? What makes it a distinctive discipline? What are the four (or five) traditional fields of anthropology?  What is applied anthropology? What is the subject matter of each of these fields? What is the subject matter of the biological anthropology subfields of forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, genetics, population genetics, medical anthropology, paleopathology, human osteology, and primatology?

 

  Know the elements of the scientific method and how they function; e.g. what is the difference between a hypothesis and a fact, or a theory and a law? What are the qualities of a theory that distinguishes it from other kinds of ideas or beliefs? What are the purposes of the scientific method? What form does testing take in regard to hypotheses concerning processes that operated in the past? Why are intelligent design and creationism, and the ideas of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, not considered to be scientific explanations.

 

How did the theory of acquired characteristics explain evolution?

 

The theory of natural selection. I hope that you know what this is by now. What is fitness (pg. 68)?  What is the relationship of natural selection to evolution? When is an individual concerned in the process? Which aspects of the process involve a population? What is a species? What is the relationship of the species concept to variation? What is understood under the concept of variation? What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous variation? Remember, selection works on pre-existing variation. What is the significance of competition to natural selection? Of failure? What is the role of the environment?

 

How is adaptation distinct from adaptability?

 

Sexual Selection   

 

Terms: inheritance, secondary sexual characteristics, viable offspring, fitness (pg. 68).

 

What are secondary sexual characteristics and how does sexual selection work?

 

Chpt. 4: 94-98  What are the public’s common and persistent misconceptions about evolution and natural selection?

 

 

 

Human Genetics

 

 

 

Chapter 2: pgs. 41-51; Chpt. 3; Chpt. 14        

 

Concepts: blending hypothesis, inheritance, allele, gene, phenotype, genotype, recessive, dominant, co-dominance, homozygous, heterozygous.

 

Terms: Punnett square, ABO system, Rhesus (Rh) system, antibody, antigen.

 

Laws: Segregation, Independent Assortment

 

How did Mendel's experiments with the common pea demonstrate these concepts? Which characteristics specific to pea plants, and the way he set up his experiment, enabled his experiment to succeed?

 

You will have to understand the principles of segregation and independent assortment, and how they are applied. For instance, why is Mendel’s contribution called a particulate theory?         

 

  

Population Genetics (Chpt. 3)

 

 

Concepts: equilibrium, breeding population, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model, The forces of evolution: genetic drift, gene flow, stabilizing and directional selection, non-random mating (negative and positive assortative mating), mutation (point, chromosomal), Tay-Sachs disease, trisomy.

 

Inbreeding causes which effects?

 

Why is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model used? What does it model? What do the elements of it stand for (e.g. p, 2pq)? What causes point mutations? Why isn't mutation by itself significant to evolutionary change? What is the unit of evolution? What are the forces of evolution? What are the factors behind genetic drift? What is the usual long-term effect of gene flow on variation? What are the four types of mutations? Which factors limit or promote the significance of mutation (Chpt. 2: pp. 55-59)?

 

Review the discussion in Chpt. 14 concerning continuous variation and skin pigment (pp. 339-341).

 

Cell Structure, chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis  (Chpt. 2: 38-43)

 

Terms: Cell, sex cells, somatic cells, nucleus, mitochondria, chromosome, chromatid, sex chromosomes, autosomes, karyotype, locus, homologous, non-homologous, non-disjunction, transduction, spermatogenesis, oögenesis, gamete, zygote, crossing-over, gamete, zygote

 

How do chromosomes come to be in your cells? What do they represent? Is the information on each chromatid of a chromosome identical? What happens to genetic information during mitosis? During meiosis? What is at the root of cancer? What process explains why single births are typical of primates? What process explains why apart from identical twins, each sibling is unique? Why is it that society is more protective of females? Why is it that there is more tolerance for the sexual transgressions of males? Why is it better that women have children when they are younger?

 

Section 2049 

 

Anthropology 1                          Study Guide for Test #1                                  Dr. Gibson

 

This study guide is intended to tell you what you should study in order to do well on the exam. It is not intended as a substitute for study.

 

Relevant sections in the Human Evolution Coloring book: 1-6 , 1-7

 

Relethford Chapter 1   Science and Evolution

 

People: Charles Darwin; J-B. de Lamarck, Sigmund Freud, Jenny McCarthy.

 

Vocabulary: physical science, humanity, holism/holistic, cross-cultural perspective, evolution, extinction, species, breeding, artificial selection (incl. biotechnology), equilibrium, stabilizing selection, population, species, continuous and discontinuous variation, adaptation, mass extinction (pgs. 91-93), test implication.

 

Hypotheses/Theories: Acquired Characteristics, Natural Selection. Younger Dryas event

 

What is anthropology? What makes it a distinctive discipline? What are the four (or five) traditional fields of anthropology?  What is applied anthropology? What is the subject matter of each of these fields? What is the subject matter of the biological anthropology subfields of forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, genetics, population genetics, medical anthropology, paleopathology, human osteology, and primatology?

 

  Know the elements of the scientific method and how they function; e.g. what is the difference between a hypothesis and a fact, or a theory and a law? What are the qualities of a theory that distinguishes it from other kinds of ideas or beliefs? What are the purposes of the scientific method? What form does testing take in regard to hypotheses concerning processes that operated in the past? Why are intelligent design and creationism, and the ideas of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, not considered to be scientific explanations?

 

How did the theory of acquired characteristics explain evolution?

 

The theory of natural selection. I hope that you know what this is by now. What is fitness (pg. 68)?  What is the relationship of natural selection to evolution? When is an individual concerned in the process? Which aspects of the process involve a population? What is a species? What is the relationship of the species concept to variation? What is understood under the concept of variation? What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous variation? Remember, selection works on pre-existing variation. What is the significance of competition to natural selection? Of failure? What is the role of the environment?

 

How is adaptation distinct from adaptability?

 

Sexual Selection   

Terms: inheritance, secondary sexual characteristics, viable offspring, fitness (pg. 68).

 

What are secondary sexual characteristics and how does sexual selection work?

 

Chpt. 4: 94-98 What are the public’s common and persistent misconceptions about evolution and natural selection?

 

Human Genetics

 

Chapter 2: pgs. 41-51; Chpt. 3; Chpt. 14        

 

Concepts: blending hypothesis, inheritance, allele, gene, phenotype, genotype, recessive, dominant, co-dominance, homozygous, heterozygous.

 

Terms: germ plasm,Punnett square, ABO system, Rhesus (Rh) system, antibody, antigen.

 

Laws: Segregation, Independent Assortment

 

How did Mendel's experiments with the common pea demonstrate these concepts? Which characteristics specific to pea plants, and the way he set up his experiment, enabled his experiment to succeed?

 

You will have to understand the principles of segregation and independent assortment, and how they are applied. For instance, why is Mendel’s contribution called a particulate theory?         

 

Population Genetics (Chpt. 3)

 

Concepts: equilibrium, breeding population, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model, The forces of evolution: genetic drift, gene flow, stabilizing and directional selection, non-random mating (negative and positive assortative mating), mutation (point, chromosomal), Tay-Sachs disease, trisomy.

 

Inbreeding causes which effects?

 

Why is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model used? What does it model? What do the elements of it stand for (e.g. p, 2pq)? What causes point mutations? Why isn't mutation by itself significant to evolutionary change? What is the unit of evolution? What are the forces of evolution? What are the factors behind genetic drift? What is the usual long-term effect of gene flow on variation? What are the four types of mutations? Which factors limit or promote the significance of mutation (Chpt. 2: pp. 55-59)?

 

Review the discussion in Chpt. 14 concerning continuous variation and skin pigment (pp. 339-341).

 

Cell Structure, chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis  (Chpt. 2: 38-43)

 

Terms: Cell, sex cells, somatic cells, nucleus, mitochondria, chromosome, chromatid, sex chromosomes, autosomes, karyotype, locus, homologous, non-homologous, non-disjunction, transduction, spermatogenesis, oögenesis, gamete, zygote, crossing-over, gamete, zygote

 

How do chromosomes come to be in your cells? What do they represent? Is the information on each chromatid of a chromosome identical? What happens to genetic information during mitosis? During meiosis? What is at the root of cancer? What process explains why single births are typical of primates? What process explains why apart from identical twins, each sibling is unique? Why is it that society is more protective of females? Why is it that there is more tolerance for the sexual transgressions of males? Why is it better that women have children when they are younger?

 

Chpt. 2: Chpt. 2: 34-41, 43

 

Terms: DNA, allele, nucleotide, base (guanine, cytocine, adanine, thymine, uracil), mRNA, nucleus, cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, tRNA, codon, anticodon, ribosome, protein, RNA polymerase enzyme, transcription, translation, amino acid, polygenic, pleiotropic.  

Stages of Protein Synthesis: transcription, translation 

Concept: base pairing principle.

Syndrome: William’s Syndrome 

What kind of molecule is a DNA molecule? Where is it found in the cell? What is its role in protein synthesis? Which part of the molecule embodies the DNA code? What maintains the structural integrity of the molecule during the times it is pulled apart during mitosis and meiosis? What is the significance of an allele to protein synthesis? What is the significance of a codon? What are the roles of the various forms of RNA? How is it that RNA can leave the nucleus?

 

  

Dr. Gibson       Study-guide For Test #2

 

Chapters covered in Relethford:  Chpt. 15: 362-68; Chpt. 2: 34-41, 43; Chpt. 4: 102-106, Chpts. 5, 6, 7, 14: 344-46

Whitehead: Chpts. 1 & 2, esp. pgs. 5-7. Twins article online.

Relevant sections in the Human Evolution Coloring book: (note: some are more relevant than others, let your notes be your guide) 1-6 , 1-7, 3, 3-1 – 3-3, 3-5, 3-6, 4, 4-1, 4-4 – 4-9, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-18, 4-20, 4-22, 4-33 - 4-35, Appendix, 3-21, 3-24, 3-8 – 3-17, 5-14 – 5-17, 3-4, 3-23, 3-29, 4-33, 3-32 – 3-35.

 

Movies: A Lemur’s Tale, Ape Genius and perhaps a few more.

 

Studies: twin studies (read Twins article)

 

Chpt. 15  Sickle Cell Anemia and the CCR5 gene

 

Terms: point mutation, co-dominance, neutral, deleterious, and beneficial mutations.

 

Chpt. 2 Epigenetics (pg. 41)

 

Movie: Ghost in Their Genes

 

Terms: chromosomal mutations, homeobox genes, non-coding DNA, methyl mark, methylation, histone restriction

 

Studies: the Human Genome project, studies of monozygotic twins raised together (MZT), studies of the effects rat parenting, genes in rats concerned with satiation, longitudinal study of Swedish health.

 

What was the significance of the discovery that there so few human genes? What does it mean that one elderly monozygotic twin is discordant for cancer? What were the causes of cancer discussed in the film? How did the leukemia treatment work? What did the timing of famine-caused vulnerability to an epigenetic change tell us? Why shouldn’t men start second families following divorce?

 

Chpt. 14: 344-46  Behavioral genetics

 

Box 2.1, 2.2, Twins article

 

Project: Minnesota Twin Family Study

Terms:, temperament, autism spectrum disorder, monozygotic and dizygotic twins, monozygotic twins raised apart (MZA), correlation coefficient, midbrain or mesencephalon, neuron, dendrite, receptor, neurotransmitter, transporter protein, synaptic cleft, testosterone, serotonin, dopamine, serotonin, reuptake, Prozac and other SSRI chemicals, bipolar depression, GABA, IQ, copy number variation mutation (CNVs).

Concepts - thrill or novelty seeking, harm avoidance.

Techniques: pedigree analysis, studies of monozygotic twins raised apart (MZAs),

Which techniques have scientists used to discriminate between the roles played by the environment and genes in human behavior? What does pedigree analysis allow us to discern? What does the pattern of autism in my family tell you about its genetic and chromosomal basis? Which factors concerning autism might explain this pattern? What are identical twins and why are they so significant to genetic research? What has research with twins told us about the nature of depression, homosexuality, and schizophrenia? Why has research in behavioral genetics been politically controversial? How do people manipulate the chemistry of their brains with drugs? Which temperaments (thrill seeking vs harm avoidance) lead to higher or lower levels of fitness? Know the relationship between neurotransmitters, receptors, transporter proteins and behavior, and how these can be traced back to genetic variation.

Book: The Son also Rises (Gregory Clark) 

Concepts: status mobility, underlying social status, status persistence, assortative mating

What is IQ? What is the heritability coefficient of IQ? How do the IQs of men and women compare? What are the controversies concerning the heritability of IQ, class, education, and ethnicity? What is Gregory Clark’s thesis concerning the lengthy persistence of families’ status differences in many countries in the face of economic catastrophes, social upheavals and liberal reforms? Why is there almost no social mobility in India or with Japanese-American or Jewish-American families in the US?

 Chpt. 4 Concepts: clade, cladistics, cladogram, niche, adaptive radiation, principle of competitive exclusion, taxonomy, physical traits: primitive, derived, specialized, generalized, dominanace, sexual dimorphism, home range, parental investment Strategies of reproduction: K-selection, r-selection.

 

How do the lemurs exemplify adaptive radiation? What is the relationship between the concepts of niche, adaptive radiation, and competitive exclusion?

  

Chpt. 5 Taxonomy: You will have to memorize the basic taxonomy of the primates. This means that I might ask you a question like "In the taxonomic class Gorilla gorilla, "gorilla" is an a. order, b. genus, c. species. You will also have to know the logic of the Linnean system, that is the relative difference in size between the superfamily grouping and the species grouping; for instance, which class includes the other? You should also have some general idea by now of which species are included in what grouping; for instance, are humans strepsirhines? Are gibbons hominoids? Which anatomical traits differentiate New World from Old World monkeys? How has gene sequencing data changed our view of primate cladistics?

 

Taxonomic terms related to the nose and rhinarium: Strepsirhini, Haplorhini, Platyrrhini, Catarrhini

 

How have the genetic data changed scientific views of the relationships within the Hominoidea?

 

Types of teeth: the dental formula - What do the different types of teeth do? How do the teeth of primates differ from those of other mammals? What is the human dental formula? Based on our dental formula alone, what group within the superfamily of anthropoids do we belong to?

 

The primate brain - how is the brain of primates different from those of less intelligent animals, how is it similar?

 

Terms: brain stem, cerebral (or neo-) cortex, cerebrum, mesencephalon, folding 

 

Adaptations and niches: diurnal, nocturnal, cathemeral, crepuscular, arboreal, terrestrial, canopy levels

 

Dietary niches: folivore, herbivore, omnivore, insectivore, frugivore, carnivore, gummivore – be acquainted with the physical characteristics that go along with these niches.

 

Modes of locomotion: quadrupedalism (terrestrial, arboreal), bipedalism, clinging and leaping, knuckle-walking, climbing (quadrumanual, suspensory), hopping, brachiation

 

Sample traits: locking phalanges, splayed toe, sagittal and nuchal crests, large orbits, foramen magnum, occipital condyle

 

Which anatomical and behavioral characteristics correspond with these niches and adaptations? For instance, what would be the limb structure of a primate that moves by clinging and leaping? What are the digits of a terrestrial quadruped like? What would be the body size of an insectivore? What is the relationship between basal metabolic rate and body size? Which anatomical traits and behavior does a diet of vegetation demand?

 

Core primate characteristics: know what they are, and in what instances they are primitive or derived for the taxa of the primate order. Why is gestation so long in primates?  Why are primates dependent for so long upon their mothers? What is the connection between these two traits? Which traits of a gorilla's skull reflect its diet?

 

Lemurs: what physical and behavioral traits indicates that lemurs are primitive primates? What are the primitive anatomical aspects of lemurs? How do most lemurs move? Are lemur's diets uniform or varied? How does lemur sexuality differ from human sexuality?

 

What are the anatomical characteristics that distinguish New from Old World Monkeys?

 

Chpt. 6   Schools: behavioral ecology, sociobiology

 

Modes of primate social structure:

      matrifocal unit/mother infant group

      solitary

      monogamous pair

      harem/unimale polygyny/unimale group

      multimale group/troop

      exploded unimale polygyny/roving promiscuity/noyau 

 

Which niches are associated with these social structures?

What types of primates are likely to be sexually dimorphic? What behavior pattern produces sexual dimorphism?

How does the social structure and behavior of bonobos differ from that of common chimpanzees? Savannah from forest baboons?

 

Dominance: What is it and in what type of primate social group are you more likely to find it?  What physical traits are likely to be associated with dominance. What is a dominance display?

 

Know the three families: Hylobatidae, Pongidae, Hominidae

Know the common anatomical and behavioral characteristics of the apes (e.g. stature, shoulder harness, pelvis).

 

How do apes and humans differ from monkeys? How do apes and humans resemble each other?

 

Special Topic: social structure and testes size.

 

Humans (Chpt. 7)

 

Know the mechanics and anatomy associated with bipedalism.

 

In what physical ways are humans like other primates, which characteristics are unique? Think brain size, brain structure, pattern of development, social structure, metabolism, etc.

 

Ape and human sexuality, ape and human reproduction: how do we compare? Why does Adrienne Zihlman think that Bonobos are important to understanding the origins of human social and sexual behavior?

 

Grooming: what is it? Why do primates groom?

 

Ape language and tool making capabilities: can they and do they? Do apes have culture? What insights have we gained into the workings of the minds of non-human primates from the studies of the way they communicate? What are the communicative capacities of apes? What two kinds of communications studies are done, and by which type of scholar? What are the drawbacks of the laboratory studies of ape communication abilities? In which ways do the communicative forms of the non-human primates resemble those of humans?

 

  

           Anthropology 1 - Study Guide for Test #3

 

Relevant chapters: Relethford: 8 – 10; Zihlman: see syllabus

 

                  Whitehead: Chpt. 3 up to pg. 77.

 

Chpt. 8

 

Terms: (Table 8.1) fossil, era, period, epoch, stratum (pl. -a), half life, isotope (stable/unstable) magnetic reversal, relative dating technique, absolute dating technique, decay.

 

Concepts: law of superposition, half life, index fossil.

 

Dating: geological, relative and absolute techniques; incl. radiocarbon, stratigraphy - faunal correlation/ biostratigraphy, potassium/argon dating (40K/40Ar), 39Ar/40Ar, paleomagnetism, oxygen isotopes, optically stimulated luminescence. Know when and how these techniques can be applied. Which materials are used to determine a date under a given technique? Are there geographical limitations to certain techniques? What are the limitations on the accuracy of these techniques?

 

Chpt. 9

 

Concepts: continental drift/plate tectonics, terminal branch feeding and visual predation hypotheses, molecular dating.

 

Early primate evolution: memorize the geological periods Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene (table 8.1), and the epochs up to the Pleistocene (Table 9.1). Know what major developments in primate evolution took place during these epochs á la table 9.1, e.g. during the Eocene, which primates were in existence and which modern forms did they most closely resemble? How do the concepts of adaptive radiation and competitive exclusion help us interpret the sequence? No, you don't have to know the exact dates of the early epochs (Paleocene through Miocene), but you will have to know dates within the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

 

Terms: cusp, lingual cingulum, primitive and derived characteristics, K-P boundary

 

The Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic Era: Which dinosaurs did the mammals evolve from? Did placental mammals exist at this time? What is the evidence? What were they like? What event allowed the radiation of the mammalian orders?

 

The Paleocene epoch of the Cenozoic Era

 

The earliest known primates. Which primate characteristics did they possess in this epoch? How did they deviate from modern primates? Which primate taxa are represented? What did they eat? How did they move? Genera: Carpolestes simpsoni and Altiatlasius kulchii. How did they resemble ancient and modern primates? For instance, how do the teeth of Altiatlasius resemble the teeth of the Omomyidae? What would be significance if Altiatlasius were ancestral to the Omomyidae? How did these species differ from modern primates?

 

The Eocene

Eocene climate: What was it like?  How does it explain primate dispersion patterns?

Geographical feature: Tethys Sea.

 

Terms: postorbital bar, dental comb.

 

Euprimates – To which modern forms do they appear to have been ancestral? What anatomical developments allow them to be called "true primates?" What is the controversy concerning Darwinius masillae? Why is the fossil so well preserved?   Why did most euprimates go extinct? How does plate tectonics allow us to understand their past and current distributions. Genera: Darwinius masillae,Necrolemur, Notharctus. Families: Adapidae, Omomyidae. Suborder: Haplorrhini/Anthropoidea. Genera: Eosimias, Pondaungia, Amphipithecus.

 

     The origins of the Haplorrhini. Which traits distinguish the early Haplorrhini from the euprimates? Where do the earliest anthropoid fossils come from? What are the current theories of the origins of the Ceboidea? What is the significance of the Y-5 cusp pattern?

 

How did Haplorrhini get to South America?

 

Oligocene Haplorrhini - Site: the Fayum. genera: Apidium, Aegyptopithecus. What is the Fayum? How have the fossils been recovered? How are these forms similar to prosimians and which traits link them to the Haplorrhini? How do they differ? Which traits does Aegyptopithecus have that resembles those of hominoids? By which traits does it resemble a monkey or prosimian?

 

Terms: diastema.

 

Miocene - Genera: Proconsul africanus, Afropithecus, Sivapithecus, Dryopithecus incl. Dryopithecus major and Dryopithecus brancoi, Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Ouranopithecus, Gigantopithecus.

 

Terms: interorbital pillar, prognathism, procumbent incisors.

Know the changes in climate and geological events that marked this period, e.g. the docking of Africa with Eurasia.

Which anatomical characteristics allow us to identify Proconsul africanus as an ape? How does it differ from them? Who found Proconsul? How does the face of Afropithecus reflect its diet? What modern ape is Sivapithecus most likely related to? How does it resemble an orangutan? To which group of modern apes is Dryopithecus a likely ancestor? What modern ape does Dryopithecus brancoi resemble? How? To which continent can we trace the origins of the African apes? Are they still there? What did Gigantopithecus eat? (Box 9.1) How long did it exist?

 

Molecular dating: Box 9.2 “How does molecular dating work?”

 

studying the relationships and estimating the timing of the branching of pongid/hominid clades through the comparison of the blood protein albumin, DNA/DNA hybridization, comparison with Y chromosome haplotypes. 

 

Know: the dental formula, the cusp patterns of monkeys and apes, and the shapes of the dental arcades for monkeys, apes, and humans and the other characteristics of ape vs. human teeth and mandibles. 

 

Chpt. 10

 

Miocene-Pliocene epochs - what happened to the climate in the late Miocene/Pliocene. Where do the major Pliocene hominid finds come from?

 

Genera and Species: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus ramidus.  Be familiar with the anatomy of these species, esp. how they are either ape-like or human-like. Know the approximate age ranges of each species, and the geographical provenance of each species.

 

Finders: Brigitte Senut, Berhane Asfaw, Michel Brunet. Know what they found, and what their attitudes were towards the hominid record.

 

Specific fossils: “Ardi” (ARA-VP-6/500).

 

Geographical localities: Great Rift Valley, Afar triangle (incl. Hadar, Awash River), Lake Turkana/Rudolf.

 

What kind of environment did “Ardi” inhabit?

 

Terms: Palmigrade clambering, megadonty, valgus angle, hallux, ilium.

 

Issues: What were the anatomical traits upon which various scientists have staked claims of hominin affinities for their late Miocene discoveries (Orrorin tugenensis, Sahelanthropus)? How does the anatomy of Ardipithecus alter our view of the timing of hominin origins? How did Ardipithecus move around on the ground and in the trees?     

     

Anthropology 1               Final Study Guide

Chpt. 10 (pg. 257 - end)

Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. Prometheus, A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, A. robustus, A. garhi Know the anatomy of these species, esp. how they are either ape-like or human-like. Know the approximate age ranges of each species, and the geographical provenance of each species.

Finders: R. Dart, R. Broom, L., M., and R. Leakey, Alan Walker. Know what they found, and what their attitudes were towards the hominin record.

Specific fossils: "Little Foot" (StW 573), Taung, the "Black Skull" (KNM-WT 17000)

Geographical localities: Great Rift Valley, Lake Turkana/Rudolf, South Africa.

Sites: Kanapoi and Alia Bay, Swartkrans, Sterkfontein, Makpansgat, Taung, Drimolen, Koobi Fora. What is the nature of the S. African cave deposits? What have been the problems with dating the South African hominids? Has the situation changed?

Anatomical terms: megadonty, procumbent, orthograde, orthognathic, prognathic, post-orbital constriction, supraorbital torus, procumbent incisors, diastema, dental arcade. Know the names of the long bones. 

Geological terms: endocast, breccia, rift valley, tuff.

Anatomy: Which traits did A. anamensis have that could be said to be ape-like? What were its hominin traits? Which traits of A. anamensis inform us of its mode of locomotion? How could Raymond Dart determine that A. africanus was a hominin? What diets did the australopithecines have? Which anatomical traits go along with heavy chewing, as exhibited by the robust australopithecines? What are the traits that the robust australopithecines exhibit as a group? Were the australopithecines sexually dimorphic? What is the evidence? What is the shape of the typical skull of Australopithecus?

Culture: Organic tools. Pebble or cobble tools. Did robustus use tools? For what? Which species is thought to have made the first stone tools? How old are the stone tools? What were they used for? What kinds of thought processes and behavior are involved in stone tool making?

Read: The Evolution of Bipedalism (pg. 274)

 

Chpt. 11  The Origin of the Genus Homo

Species: Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster/Homo erectus.

 

Specific fossils: Twiggy, "Dik Dik" (OH 62), KNM-ER-1470, KNM-WT-15000, KNM-ER-1808, Mojokerto, Dmanisi remains.

 

Terms:, Lower Paleolithic, Oldowan industry or tradition, Acheulean industry, chopper, flake, hammer stone, manuport, core, hand axe, taphonomy, intercostals, cervical vertebrae, sagittal keeling, nuchal torus, angled occiput, calotte.

 

Sites: Laetoli and Dik Dik Hill in Olduvai Gorge, Lake Turkana, Nariokotome, Dmanisi, Modjokerto, Zhuokuodian, Solo River and Trinil, Dmanisi.

 

Scientists: Eugene DuBois, Franz Weidenreich, Lewis Binford?

Did the initial Leakey/Tobias interpretations of the anatomy of H. habilis hold up? Which body parts did they discuss? Which new insights were gained from the examination of OH 62? What information did Alan Walker glean from the Nariokotome skeleton regarding the niche of H. ergaster? How did H. ergaster cope with its physical limitations with regard to its diet? What evidence is there that H. ergaster was significantly more intelligent than other species of Homo? Could it speak? What is the significance of the modern nose? How did the hominid remains from Dmanisi differ from the Nariokotome boy? What are the prevailing explanations for the difference? Which theory accounts for why H. ergaster left Africa? Issues: Was there a hominin radiation at the end of the Pliocene?

What is the difference between marks left on bone by stone tools, and marks made by animal teeth? What have taphonomic studies revealed about the creation of sites at Olduvai Gorge?

What may be inferred about the behavior of Homo erectus from aspects of its anatomy? What are the clashing interpretations of Zhuokuodian?

Chpt. 12

 

Species: Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis, Archaic Homo sapiens.

Sites: Mauer, Boxgrove, Sima de los Huesos, caves of the Sierra de Atapuerca: Gran Dolima, Sima del Elefante, Terra Amata, Boxgrove, Neander Valley, Shanidar, Mt. Carmel area (Skhul, Tabun, Kebara, Qafseh), Krapina.

Terms: Occipital bun, midfacial prognathism.

Pleistocene - which climate changes occurred?

Issues: Cladistic significance of Homo antecessor. Culture of Homo antecessor. The culture of Homo heidelbergensis as represented at Boxgrove. Ancient cannibalism and empathy in H. antecessor and H. heidelbergensis. Expansion of the cranial case over time.Trends in the change of facial anatomy. What do Spanish scientists claim about the significance of Homo antecessor with respect to later human evolution? What is the significance of the variability in cranial architecture in the remains from Sima de los Huesos?

Who were the Neanderthals? Know their anatomy. What does their anatomy tell us about their lifestyle? What happened to them? What is the evidence for religion? For cannibalism? For empathy?

Culture: Tool industries (Olduwan, Acheulean, Mousterian, levallois technique): what typlifies these industries?  hunting vs. scavenging, bones and behavior of H. erectus. Use of fire. The earliest hominin-made shelters.

Topics: DNA studies of Neandertals (pgs. 320-321). What has DNA analysis revealed about the appearance of Neandertals, their abilities, and whether or not they are related to us?

Could the Neandertals speak?

Chpt. 13

Sites: Klassies River Mouth, Border Cave, Herto (Middle Awash) Skhul, Qafzeh, St. Ceasár, Krapina, Arcy-sur-Cure

Fossil: BOU-VP-16/1

Topics: Mitochondrial Eve

Anatomically modern humans: which physical traits distinguish them from the Neanderthals? What evidence is there for their relationship to the Neanderthals? Which theory of the origins of anatomically modern humans does the fossil evidence support? Did climate oscillations during the Pleistocene play a role?

Concepts: Multiregional model of the origin of modern human origins, Out of Africa model aka African Replacement Model

Culture: Upper Paleolithic tool industries, the earliest art. How did the tools of the Upper Paleolithic differ from those of the Mousterian?


Online Resources: (list related websites as links)

The Scientific Method                                   Homo erectus in Asia

Evolution and Natural Selection                     Homo erectus in Europe

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Model

DNA Replication and Transmission    

About Mutations

The Structure of DNA and Protein Synthesis

Twins

Behavioral Genetics Lecture                          Homo heidelbergensis

Sickle Cell Anemia and Microevolution            Archaic Homo sapiens

Primate Taxonomy                                      Homo sapiens sapiens

Primate Locomotion                                     New Hope for Depression

Primate Social Organization 

Dating Techniques

The Paleocene

The Eocene and Oligocene

The Miocene

Late Miocene Protohomins

Australopithecus and Paranthropus

Oldest Human Fossil

Emergence of the Genus Homo

 Welcome to Anthropology 1

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